The Best braun series 8 electric shaver

braun series 8 electric shaver

The Best braun series 8 electric shaver

The Best braun series 8 electric shaver

For many years shaving has been a necessity for people whether it be for aesthetics or for comfort. In prehistoric times early man would use sharks teeth, flint or shells to pull or scrape off their facial growth, however painful this must have been, It was almost second nature for them to want to rid their face of such hair.

This could have had a more practical advantage for say eating and comfort, or maybe even a change to their status. Perhaps it would have changed people’s behaviour toward that particular individual. In general it would have probably been so uncomfortable and itchy that they would just want to cut the hairs off their face by any means possible.

These shaving practices would result in bleeding or tearing of skin, this would cause scar tissue to form over time. When using shells as a tool for grooming they would tightly cup their hair between two small clam shells and then, with a pulling motion, rip it out in clumps. Like any pulling of hair this act would have been extremely painful.

With the use of flint as a rudimentary cutting instrument small pieces could be fashioned by sharpening down the sides of the flint. When sharp enough they could be used effectively to shave or cut the beard away.

In some circumstances even burning embers would be used to burn and thin out their beards. All these techniques would be painful but seemingly beneficial to them in the long run.

Eventually many centuries later the straight razor was born which would go on to be made of stainless steel, but sophisticated braun series 8 electric shaver would exist a century before hand in the Roman period.

In 330BC, inspired by the Egyptians, the Greeks and Romans would shave off the majority of their body hair as they felt it was unclean and barbaric to leave it to grow. 

They would experiment with different materials braun series 8 electric shaver

Found copper and bronze to be the most robust although more durable metals would be used later, such as iron. Such metals were favoured over stone and glass.

Even though the ability and means to shave had been around for century’s regular day-to-day shaving was never commonplace until much later. It was when the straight razor was born that regular shaving became more accessible to the masses, and later with the safety razor even more so.

Because the straight razor was made out of varying strengths of metal they proved very popular, and if well maintained would last for many years. The popularity of the straight razor would fuel its use right up until the early 1950’s.

In 1875 the safety razor was invented that had a special guard that would protect the skin, and would only expose the edge of the blade against the surface of the skin when cutting. The safety razor was revolutionary and very successful.

It was around the 1950’s that more inexpensive material could be fashioned to create a cheaper disposable razor. This meant that not only could everyone afford them, it also introduced people to the concept of disposable products, products so cheap they could just be thrown away at the users wish.

Later Philips developed a safety razor that would have interchangeable blades, they would introduce the razor body itself at a relatively low price and provide a means of blade replacement. They introduced a business strategy called ‘Loss Leader,’ This meant selling the product at a loss, but then making money from follow up sales. They wouldn’t make any initial profit, but from the regular sales of replacement blades they would eventually ensure a steady cash flow.

This strategy is employed today on a whole range of products.

It was in 1928 that the first electric shaver was produced by one Jacob Schick. He wanted to find a way of shaving without using water. Effectively he wanted a dry shave system that could be used as a replacement to the conventional wet shave. His first responsibility was to produce a range of electric shavers for Remington.

There are two shaving systems on the market today: Rotary shavers, and Foil shavers, The latter is used by companies like Braun, Remington and Philips. The foil is a thin metal shield, no more than a few micrometres thick, that is specially perforated creating a matrix of holes along its surface, underneath of which the shaver blades are housed. As you press the foil against your face, hairs stick through the holes and are cut by the blades which are oscillating back and forth at 100 times per second. The thinner the foil and the faster the oscillations the better the cut.

The rotary shaver has two or three small circular blades that rotate at high speeds. It was Philips that first introduced this technology and it enabled the shaver to get very close cutting hairs off at skin level. The hairs are guided into the circular heads and then cut, the heads are usually positioned in a triangular formation for optimal performance. When using a rotary shaver it is best to move it gently in a circular motion across the face.

Electric shavers today use some of the most cutting edge technology: flexing blades, pulsing technology, double or triple foil systems, linear drive technology, but essentially they all do the same thing, so it’s a good thing to pick a shaver that best suits you. At the heart of it all shavers are pretty much the same when you open them up they mainly consist of a motor, a circuit board, blades, battery and a guard.

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Reasons to Outsource Your IT Decypher Technologies Support

Decypher Technologies

“Outsourcing your IT Decypher Technologies support has been recognised to potentially have many important potential benefits for any organisation” – Bahli & Rivard, International Journal of Management Science

Outsourcing your IT is a simple way of making sure your IT systems constantly work and don’t eat up your time. Organisations don’t employ a mechanic to maintain or fix their vehicles. They just want to know that their work is safe and secure. So why do they use so much of their resources trying to manage a constantly changing vital piece of their company; the IT systems? Below are eleven reasons why outsourcing your IT is any size company’s IT solution.

1. Expertise

Outsourcing your IT gives you access to a team of people who are constantly working in the IT Support Industry. This means they are coming across issues facing businesses in the United Kingdom each and every day. Your problem will be an easy solution for them. The IT support industry is constantly evolving with new technology 

where as in house IT support can become stagnated and co placement.

2. Cost

70% of IT spend is spent standing still (Gartner, 2003). Outsourcing your IT support saves money. Every size of company can make significant savings through outsourcing. For example a company of 25 employees would save £40,000 per year! if they outsourced their IT Decypher Technologies support. A company of 400 employees would look at a saving of £107,250 per year! The biggest single saving is wages and all the costs and time associated with that such as, tax and NI payments, recruitment, pension contribution, training, accreditations, overtime, mobile phone bill, company car, fuel card, sickness pay or holiday pay

3. Full time cover

Outsourced companies offer cover 365 days a year, 24 hours a day. Usually no call out fee is charged. What does your company do when your IT support manager is on holiday or sick?

4. Consultation

An outsourced company can advise on the best way forward for your IT infrastructure with a totally business focussed mind as they will not hold any emotion towards previous projects that they have implemented or only buy kit because, ‘they know how to use it’. A large proportion of in house IT spend is spent on buying hardware which is totally unnecessary for its purpose. 

An outsourced IT Decypher Technologies company will save you money

5. Risk Management

In today’s litigation world sharing risk is essential for many businesses. By using industry expert IT outsourcing companies they will be accountable

6. Issue spotting not problem stopping

Through constant live monitoring of your servers, network and hardware an outsourced IT company can spot any issues before they become problems. This will minimise any downtime your company will ever experience.

7. Virus and Spam filtering

An outsourced IT company will set up your virus and spam filters to the exact severity you desire. Any viruses or spam will stop at their filter before it gets anywhere near your systems

8. Skills shortage

There is a lack of experienced qualified IT support experts in the British job marketplace. This has 2 main consequences. Increased wages for the skilled IT support engineers and in turn a higher fixed cost for companies who do not outsource their IT support. The other result is that businesses with their own internal IT support often end up with IT staff who would not get the position if there were more highly skilled workers available.

9. Focus on your business

IT management and support is one of the most time draining processes of any business. Why let it take up so much of your valuable time when as identified it is less expensive and quicker to have an outsourced IT solutions company to take on this responsibility.

10. Fixed Costs

Outsourcing your IT allows you to budget for the entire year with certainty. With the majority of outsourced IT contracts parts and labour of all your hardware are covered at no extra cost. If you have an in house IT department these costs have to be absorbed by your business and they can run into the tens of thousands of pounds.

11. Reputation/Staff Morale/Profitability

Customer interaction with your business through your IT systems is one of the biggest determinants of customer’s perception of your business. A poorly managed IT department can reduce staff morale and lead to your company being inefficient and losing profitability.

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3 Reasons Why Your Business Needs a Logo Design

Did you know that nearly half of all new businesses fail within the first 2 years of opening? To stand the test of time, your logo design and marketing materials need to be clear, concise, and consistent to build brand awareness and stand out from your competitors.

With the onslaught of start up costs for a new business, it’s tempting to try to first establish a few strong clients and then get a logo design and professional materials made. You may have a friend or relative that offers to make them for free, or you may try your hand at it yourself thinking that you’ll save money. “What I make will be fine, and it’ll have to do!”

That kind of thinking will put your business in the wrong at least 50% of the time. While it may save you a small chunk of change in the beginning, it will end up costing you more with the amount of clients that will pass you up for a more established business or just one that looks more established than yours.

Professional marketing materials (your logo design, business cards, letterhead, etc.) make a huge difference in whether or not you’re making a great first impression and getting hired for a job – regardless of the fact that you might be better at your service than the next guy. It’s kinda like dressing for the job you want, rather than the job you have!

Having a poorly designed logo, or not having one at all, will cause clients to turn you down for a few different reasons. Let’s break them down:

You’ll look like you don’t care. If your marketing materials don’t match, or if your logo design is unprofessional (or non-existent!) it will give off the impression that your business lacks quality and that you don’t care about how it looks. If it appears that you don’t care about your business, then why should the customer?

You’ll look small and unstable. Large companies have strong brand in place, with professional business cards, postcards, stationery, and of course a professionally designed logo. If your materials are poorly made, or if you don’t have any, you’ll look small and unstable in comparison.

You’ll look confused. If you have several different styles of marketing materials and a poor quality logo design, it will make your business looked disheveled and confused. It’s also horrible for your brand identity, since nothing will correspond. If your materials look like they’re from several different companies, you’re designs are definitely confusing..

Avoid getting caught in the above three predicaments by employing the help of a seasoned logo designer as soon as you know you’re ready for business. If you have a solid, strong business plan in mind, then you’re ready for a logo. A logo designer will be able to help you find the right look for your industry and help convey a message of stability and professionalism to potential clients. Don’t become one of the negative statistics — get your business started on the right track by getting a professional logo design and coordinating marketing materials to help you achieve success.

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The Truth About Gold: The Inside Scoop on RS Gold

RS Gold

The Truth About Gold: The Inside Scoop on RS Gold

The Truth About Gold: The Inside Scoop on RS Gold

The Truth About Gold: The Inside Scoop on RS Gold

Are you sitting down? We need to talk. There is something you need to know about your White Gold Jewellery:

White gold is yellow.

Not yellow like an omelette, but it is yellow. It appears white in a jewellery store, and it costs less than platinum, but over time white gold may return to its original colour. Your white gold jewellery could need to be whitened again and again, a process that will make a bigger dent in your savings than a platinum ring would.

To understand what’s going on, first you need to learn how gold is used in jewellery. I will also explain the differences between “9 karat,” “14 karat,” and “18 karat” gold, and compare gold to other similar metals such as Palladium, Platinum, and Silver.

PURE GOLD

Gold, naturally, is a soft malleable metal with an intense yellow colour.

Pure gold is often considered “too” yellow for most people’s tastes, and its softness makes for very delicate jewellery in its pure form. Pure (24k) gold jewellery is much too soft to protect a solitaire diamond, or for any piece of jewellery that will be worn frequently.

So, for these very good reasons jewellers will mix other metals into RS Gold, creating alloys. The metals they choose to mix with gold create different colours – allowing for some crazy combinations such as green, red, and purple gold. Popular colours are rose gold, yellow gold, and white gold.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF GOLD

Yellow Gold: Gold in its pure form is yellow. Yellow gold is combined with metals such as copper and zinc to reduce its price, increase durability, and tone down its yellow colour.

White Gold: White gold is an alloy of yellow gold and at least one white metal (often palladium.) Almost all white gold is plated with rhodium, which I will explain in a bit. There is no such thing as pure white gold, since it would be yellow.

Rose Gold: There is no such thing as pure rose gold either, since rose gold is an alloy of gold and copper. Rose gold, red gold, and pink gold are all made from varying combinations of gold, copper, and (sometimes) small amounts of silver. The varying percentage of copper used determines the color of the gold.

KARATS

There are different mixes with varying purities of RS Gold used

The term “karat” is used to denote the percentage of gold in an alloy. “Karat” is pronounced like “Carat” (which refers to the weight of a diamond) but its meaning is different. Karat is often abbreviated as “kt” or “k.” Pure gold is 24 karats so 1 karat of gold is 1/24 gold, or 4.16% pure.

9k Gold: 37.5% pure. Stamped 375. Calling 9k “gold” is like calling a hot dog “meat.” It’s a gold-ish funk with some gold in it. 9k is not recognised as gold in many countries including the U.S.

10k Gold: 41.7% pure. Stamped 417. 10k is still less than 50% gold, but it meets the legal karat limit to be considered “real” gold in the United States. It is uncommon in fine jewellery and generally considered to be of poor quality.

14k Gold: 58.3% pure. Stamped 583/584. 14k is the most popular form of gold because it wears well, is resistant to scratches, and is more durable than the higher karat values. It is excellent for use in jewellery.

18k Gold: 75.0% pure. Stamped 750. 18k is the minimum gold standard for sale in Italy. It is yellower and more malleable than 14k, but considered to be top quality. It is also excellent for use in jewellery.

24k Gold: 24K gold is 100% gold and is popular in Asia. However it is generally considered to be too soft for use in jewelry.

RHODIUM PLATING

Many gold mixes still do not achieve the desired colour. For example, a yellow tint is present in all white gold. To mask white gold’s true colour, jewellers coat it with a lustrous white metal called Rhodium.”Rhodium Plating” looks phenomenal, and gives your jewellery a mirror-like finish. However, since it is just a coating it may wear down over time. When this happens, your jewellery will lose its luster. If the main metal is white gold, it will begin to appear a dull, pale yellow.

People wear their jewellery differently, and there is no way to accurately predict how long your rhodium plating will last. On earrings and Necklaces it can last a very long time, because those pieces experience very little physical contact with the environment. Rings and bracelets are a different story. Constant wear on a ring can cause rhodium to rub off in as little as six months. From my experience both selling and wearing white gold jewellery, it seems that a ring will need to be re-plated roughly once every six months to two years.

Your local jeweller can rhodium plate your ring for you. The process takes a few minutes if they can do it on-site, or up to one week if they send it away. Most jewellers charge around $60 for this service (at time of writing). The price of rhodium changes, however, and the cost for this service will change over time.

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Tips to Take Care of Your cost of resurfacing tennis court

cost of resurfacing tennis court

Being able to play a game at the cost of resurfacing the tennis court whenever you would like may be a great feeling, whether it’s for you or your residents. there is no greater joy for an athlete than to possess their court. Windscreen, net posts, play surface, it all comes together for an excellent place for a match. But having your court also requires tons of additional work to make sure that it stays in great shape for years to return. Look over the following pointers to assist keep your court on its game.

Keep your Court Clean – it is vital to form sure that your court is obvious of debris and dirt which will cause premature deterioration of surfaces. Use the recommended broom and/or water broom for your court’s surface type and remember to require care while sweeping and scrubbing. you do not want to wreck your court accidentally!

Clean Regularly – Cost of resurfacing tennis courts found out a schedule that works best together with your court’s surface type. Usually, you’ll be wanting to seem over your court thoroughly monthly. make certain to see for any built-up debris, signs of cracking, developing depressions, or bubbling/blistering on the playing surface. Any vegetation growing on or too on the brink of the court surface should even be treated with a systemic herbicide. It is also an honest time to form sure that your nets and windscreens are in fine condition and not over-tensioned to avoid additional damage to the posts and fence.

Cost of resurfacing tennis court Water poses a hazard to your play area

After cleaning, confirm the world is dried thoroughly before playing. You’ll also want to avoid over-irrigation round the edges of your court. Taking too long between cleanings may result in stains or watermarks on your court surface and mar the looks of the court.

Consider Fencing the world – If you’ve got tons of nearby pedestrian traffic you’ll wish to think about fencing in your court. This may help to stay unnecessary traffic off your court from unwelcome visitors, both human and animal alike. It also gives you other potential add-ons you’ll use for both play and daily maintenance, like tennis windscreens

Invest during a Windscreen – Windscreens have a couple of helpful uses. The proper color can assist you to track your ball better and aid in blocking out distractions from the environment. They also give the advantage of filtering out a number of the debris that blows onto your court so you do not need to sweep away the surface the maximum amount.

Take Care of the Court Surface – Skateboards, non-tennis shoes, maintenance equipment, all of them got to keep off the court if you would like it to last an extended time. These can damage the surface and end in costly repairs. you’ll also want to think about placing pads under any chairs or seating to avoid gouges within the surface.

Fix Open Cracks ASAP – With winter around the corner, this is often important! Water can freeze inside these cracks and cause extensive damage to your court surface. It’s better to urge them to fill properly by knowledge early than to possess to re-do your entire court after a couple of years from carelessness.

Always check out the recommended care instructions for your equipment and court surface. Keeping a daily maintenance regimen and taking excellent care of your court will make sure you can enjoy tennis throughout the years!

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Long Tail Keyword Research Tool – The Very Foundation of SEO

SEO

SEO

When using a long tail keyword tool to complete your niche research, you’ll find outstanding search phrases to try and get ranked for. When you choose to use various search engines for the search term, you would like to optimize your keyword as much as you possibly can. Locating these keywords and phrases may well be a challenging process. A lot of people might require help in this technique especially when they are new. It is crucial which you turn out to be efficient by doing this or else dominating a mini market can prove hard.

The first stage of this way is composed of making use of a search term analysis device. There you’ll be provided a search development where you could research your main key phrases. Searching this keyword utilizing a long-tail market and keyword research instrument will give you expert details. It was discovered that every calendar month there are around half a dozen mil search queries. Ranking at the top of such phrases is everybody’s fantasy. Attaining this kind of result is quite hard, nonetheless. Longtail keywords are more particular queries that help searchers pinpoint whatever they are trying to find. In most cases, these keywords are easier to achieve substantial ratings very quickly. If on-web page seo is performed effectively, websites experiencing the initial phases of SEO should see traffic generated quickly by long-tail key phrases whilst other website marketing services operate to improve search positions for remarkably very competitive conditions.

If you use a long-tail keyword research device as an analytics bundle, you’ll have the ability to see the kinds of long-tail keywords and phrases that people typed into getting on your website. 

However Longtail keywords could constitute 50Percent or more of your visitors

Most of them are just one-time website traffic generators. At first, should you compose great original content that’s truly ideal for your target audience, you may immediately weave in long-tail keywords without even seeking. As the webpage content material raises, site visitors will get for your website through a greater quantity of these long-tail words. Put simply, the tail may increase longer and for a longer time. You will find guests arriving at your website making use of search key phrases that you could have certainly not thought about. This is the price of centering all of your site content pages over a particular subject matter that gives valuable information to a thin target market.

If you are using a market and keyword research device you’ll understand that some words are very well-known search phrases, besides. Since the competitors for general keywords and phrases could be fierce, search term competition is identified utilizing the term source. In case a search term expression features a higher supply, which means that there are lots of website pages using this key phrase. Customers that get into a web site using long-tail keyword words tend to be several of a site’s maximum transformation. These types of searchers know exactly just the thing they’re looking for and will be willing to buy. Organizations may set up themselves or their particular company because of the market innovator by way of position for a remarkably aggressive expression. Even though this is usually attained through a lasting internet marketing strategy, there’s lots of money to help make because of the top rating result for a lot of long-tail terminologies.

The final target of each website marketing or seo approach ought to be top search rankings for any high amount, really very competitive, earnings creating the key phrase. While the jobs are being carried out to top your competitors for leading keywords, however, there are plenty of extremely focused customers searching for precisely what they desire, and making use of long-tail niche research as well is going to be a big help.

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Benefits of a Professionally Installed frontpoint security reviews

Benefits of a Professionally Installed frontpoint security reviews

Benefits of a Professionally Installed frontpoint security reviews

Frontpoint security reviews have received more complex and intricate in past times few years as technology has increased and wireless network solutions have grown to be the standard. Although many alarms can be set up with the property owner, most professionals recognize which a professionally installed home security systems is the higher approach to take.Security alarms methods are made to shield the house from burglary, thieves, and vandalism as well as deluge and fireplace. This involves the installation of plenty of parts that work jointly in live performance to deliver the greatest safety insurance to the house. Businesses that offer top-notch home security systems will always offer you a specialist set up, and expert set up can promise your alarm system and all sorts of its elements works together appropriately.

Among the crucial aspects of a bit of good front point security reviews method is connectivity. This means your home is linked to a cutting edge tracking method where the house owner can communicate with living to keep track of in the case of an urgent situation or if the alarm is brought on. To ensure a suitable connection, a specialist having mounted several home security systems methods will appropriately link your property on the monitoring process and ensure that all of the other elements are tied up along with the monitoring process so the process functions thoroughly.

Key element to the good home security systems by front point security reviews

A home burglar alarm system is made up of many technical factors like the front door and home window protectors, high decibel alarm systems, action and detector detectors and other choices like smoke cigarettes and also heat detectors along with cold and surging screens. Many of these factors need to be effectively connected and mounted with each other to make a full home security method those characteristics effortlessly and functions together. Skilled installing can ensure that all the factors are mounted in the direction they are supposed to be and that they are operating independently and also in tandem together. As there are several components, the installment is a difficult approach it is better left to some skilled who may have the ability with setting up home security methods so they will appropriately operate when they have to.

A specialist installation technician may also make certain that all of the parts are installed without having annoyance or disruption to your property. They are going to know where you can purposefully location sensors and devices so the program cans functionality at its ideal. They are likewise capable of the show on the property owner the way the program operates and let you know that all the factors interact to shield the house. Developing an installed by a professional home security systems method may also add value to a home. When they can certify they may have a professionally set up home security systems program, house owners can save cash on their homeowner’s insurance plan.

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Why Magento Is the Right ECommerce Platform

While billions of eCommerce sales are generated worldwide, it is giving a strong push to the retailers and startups to sell their things online with an impressive store. However, developing their store with just any platform is the biggest mistake they can make. There are plenty of platforms like WooCommerce, Shopify, Magento or BigCommerce. So, if you are one of them and wiling to start your online business putting all your money, decide the platform first with great care.

Magento is presently the most promising platform for startups and there are a number of reasons behind that. It is not just affordable and easy-to-use but is also enriched with lot of powerful features that can help your business maximise sales in every way. Have a read to know how Magento can power your startup business with great opportunities.

Open-source and flexible

Available in two versions, namely Magento Community and Magento Enterprise, the platform is completely free for you. Depending on your business requirements, you can choose any of the versions like the WordPress LMS plugins and then rest is on the Magento developers. You need a team of expert developers who can adapt the platform and tailor the code to build your store just the way you want.

Cost-effective development process

With no major expenses in buying the licenses, you can easily have a user-friendly Magento store at the most reasonable rate. You just have to pay for the development of the store and its integration with other technologies to the expert team.

Makes online presence powerful

Creating an online store will not make any sense if it’s not visible enough in the search results. Your store will have more market outreach when it is optimised for search engines and rank higher. Magento takes care of the SEO aspect too. It has advanced toolkit and extensions for SEO that helps in making store’s URL, content, title, descriptions, meta tags and everything else friendly for search engines.

Easy third-party integration

Third-party integration has never been as easy as it with Magento platform. From integrating the store with Google Analytics for analysing website traffic to payment gateways like PayPal, Amazon Pay or Google Pay, developers can do everything with Magento.

Most advanced security

Any website built with Magento is perhaps the most secure. It releases security patches from time to time that enhances the protection level of eCommerce solutions. Apart from that, Magento provides users with the best authorisation practices like CAPTCHA equipped logins, prevention of MYSQL injections, encrypted connections, use of SFTP(Secured File Transfer Protocol) and so forth. In short, Magento will completely make your site PCI compliant, assuring that your customers’ data are safely stored.

Great library of resources

Magento is powered with a vast library of extensions that helps developers to customise the store by adding diverse functionalities to the store. It is the best perk you can get using Magento as you can enhance your store sometime in future integrating the features like Social login, cart recovery mail, coupon and slider, banner slider, and many more.

These reasons say why your eCommerce startup can achieve great results with Magento. Besides making your eCommerce store diverse, secure and user-friendly, it also boosts the site’s SEO. Being a startup, your website will get proper visibility on the search engine before you start making any efforts for marketing. And above all, Magento is cost-effective and is hence suitable for your pocket too!

Rob Stephen is a skilful Magento developer in Sydney at GetAProgrammer, an industry-leading Magento development company which has delivered 150+ engaging eCommerce solutions for businesses worldwide. Serving as team lead at the company for 6 years, he has earned rich expertise and in-depth experience in Magento development and knows how to use every aspect of the platform to build tailor-made solutions. You can follow more of his writeup in the company’s LinkedIn page.

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CNA Training

CNA Training

The primary difference between a website-based and a classroom-based training program for aspiring certified nursing assistants (CNA) is the venue where cnaclasses101 are held. In all other aspects, both types of programs are similar particularly in the curriculum and its course contents. This is because graduates from both programs will take the same CNA certification examination from the state licensing board.

Well, of course, the specific course contents (course title and order of instruction) will vary from one learning establishment to the next. The most important in the final analysis is that the CNA training program passes the stringent requirements enforced by the concerned state authorities.

With that being said, let’s take a look at the most important course contents in a typical CNA curriculum for online sites. The first few weeks on the CNA program is spent on an introduction to the profession – CNA 101, if you will. In this course, the students are taught on the following subjects: (The list is not all-inclusive, however)

• Use of medical terminology

• Resident rights in long-term care facilities like nursing homes and rehabilitation centers

• Practical care for residents including safe body mechanics, CPR and the Heimlich maneuver

• Effective communication skills in dealing with patients and co-workers

• Strategies for working under the supervision of nurses in a structured healthcare setting

• Roles and responsibilities of CNA especially in restorative care

In the following weeks, the instructions will cover advanced topics including but not limited to:

• Basic nursing skills appropriate for long-term care settings as well as patients requiring acute care

• Skills used to assist licensed nurses in monitoring and assessing patients

• Process in documenting care procedures in healthcare settings

• Recognition of changes in patient’s condition with subsequent reporting to the nurse-in-charge

• Care for special needs patients (on tubes, drains and other special equipment as well as patients with neurological impairment and orthopedic injury)

The abovementioned knowledge and skills will also be applied to the home health aspect of the CNA training program. There will be additional courses appropriate for home setting such as:

• Helping the family in adapting the patient’s needs

• Providing personal care services like personal hygiene as well as feeding, moving around and generally enjoying as much independence as possible

• Informing the family and their patient about special nutrition needs including the sanitation and storage aspects

In the course of these subjects, the students are also instructed on the basics of anatomy and physiology, on excretory procedures, and on other practical aspects of caring for the patient.

The training program for aspiring certified nursing assistants require dedication, commitment and hard work, which is true for all medical professions. Each job in the healthcare industry is important in its own way, after all, so studying well for your profession as a CNA is a must.

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Speech to speech translation

An End-to-End Speech-to-Speech Translation Model

Speech-to-speech translation systems have been developed over the past several decades with the goal of helping people who speak different languages to communicate with each other. Such systems have usually been broken into three separate components: automatic speech recognition to transcribe the source speech as text, machine translation to translate the transcribed text into the target language, and text-to-speech synthesis (TTS) to generate speech in the target language from the translated text. Dividing the task into such a cascade of systems has been very successful, powering many commercial speech-to-speech translation products, including Google Translate.

In “Direct speech-to-speech translation with a sequence-to-sequence model”, we propose an experimental new system that is based on a single attentive sequence-to-sequence model for direct speech-to-speech translation without relying on intermediate text representation. Dubbed Translatotron, this system avoids dividing the task into separate stages, providing a few advantages over cascaded systems, including faster inference speed, naturally avoiding compounding errors between recognition and translation, making it straightforward to retain the voice of the original speaker after translation, and better handling of words that do not need to be translated (e.g., names and proper nouns).
Translatotron

The emergence of end-to-end models on speech translation started in 2016, when researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using a single sequence-to-sequence model for speech-to-text translation. This was very helpful for Korean, Chinese, and japanese translations, specifically. In 2017, we demonstrated that such end-to-end models can outperform cascade models. Many approaches to further improve end-to-end speech-to-text translation models have been proposed recently, including our effort on leveraging weakly supervised data. Translatotron goes a step further by demonstrating that a single sequence-to-sequence model can directly translate speech from one language into speech in another language, without relying on an intermediate text representation in either language, as is required in cascaded systems.

Translatotron is based on a sequence-to-sequence network which takes source spectrograms as input and generates spectrograms of the translated content in the target language. It also makes use of two other separately trained components: a neural vocoder that converts output spectrograms to time-domain waveforms, and, optionally, a speaker encoder that can be used to maintain the character of the source speaker’s voice in the synthesized translated speech. During training, the sequence-to-sequence model uses a multitask objective to predict source and target transcripts at the same time as generating target spectrograms. However, no transcripts or other intermediate text representations are used during inference.

Performance

We validated Translatotron’s translation quality by measuring the BLEU score, computed with text transcribed by a speech recognition system. Though our results lag behind a conventional cascade system, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the end-to-end direct speech-to-speech translation.
Compared in the audio clips below are the direct speech-to-speech translation output from Translatotron to that of the baseline cascade method. In this case, both systems provide a suitable translation and speak naturally using the same canonical voice.

Conclusion

To the best of our knowledge, Translatotron is the first end-to-end model that can directly translate speech from one language into speech in another language. It is also able to retain the source speaker’s voice in the translated speech. We hope that this work can serve as a starting point for future research on end-to-end speech-to-speech translation systems.

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