Speech to speech translation

An End-to-End Speech-to-Speech Translation Model

Speech-to-speech translation systems have been developed over the past several decades with the goal of helping people who speak different languages to communicate with each other. Such systems have usually been broken into three separate components: automatic speech recognition to transcribe the source speech as text, machine translation to translate the transcribed text into the target language, and text-to-speech synthesis (TTS) to generate speech in the target language from the translated text. Dividing the task into such a cascade of systems has been very successful, powering many commercial speech-to-speech translation products, including Google Translate.

In “Direct speech-to-speech translation with a sequence-to-sequence model”, we propose an experimental new system that is based on a single attentive sequence-to-sequence model for direct speech-to-speech translation without relying on intermediate text representation. Dubbed Translatotron, this system avoids dividing the task into separate stages, providing a few advantages over cascaded systems, including faster inference speed, naturally avoiding compounding errors between recognition and translation, making it straightforward to retain the voice of the original speaker after translation, and better handling of words that do not need to be translated (e.g., names and proper nouns).

The emergence of end-to-end models on speech translation started in 2016, when researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using a single sequence-to-sequence model for speech-to-text translation. This was very helpful for Korean, Chinese, and japanese translations, specifically. In 2017, we demonstrated that such end-to-end models can outperform cascade models. Many approaches to further improve end-to-end speech-to-text translation models have been proposed recently, including our effort on leveraging weakly supervised data. Translatotron goes a step further by demonstrating that a single sequence-to-sequence model can directly translate speech from one language into speech in another language, without relying on an intermediate text representation in either language, as is required in cascaded systems.

Translatotron is based on a sequence-to-sequence network which takes source spectrograms as input and generates spectrograms of the translated content in the target language. It also makes use of two other separately trained components: a neural vocoder that converts output spectrograms to time-domain waveforms, and, optionally, a speaker encoder that can be used to maintain the character of the source speaker’s voice in the synthesized translated speech. During training, the sequence-to-sequence model uses a multitask objective to predict source and target transcripts at the same time as generating target spectrograms. However, no transcripts or other intermediate text representations are used during inference.


We validated Translatotron’s translation quality by measuring the BLEU score, computed with text transcribed by a speech recognition system. Though our results lag behind a conventional cascade system, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the end-to-end direct speech-to-speech translation.
Compared in the audio clips below are the direct speech-to-speech translation output from Translatotron to that of the baseline cascade method. In this case, both systems provide a suitable translation and speak naturally using the same canonical voice.


To the best of our knowledge, Translatotron is the first end-to-end model that can directly translate speech from one language into speech in another language. It is also able to retain the source speaker’s voice in the translated speech. We hope that this work can serve as a starting point for future research on end-to-end speech-to-speech translation systems.

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How to Get Your HVAC Certification and HVAC Licensing

Certification and HVAC Licensing

An HVAC technician can enjoy a variety of benefits including job stability and a hands-on career field. As you complete your HVAC training, make sure to get the right certification and licensing to start you out on a good path to success.

Just follow these 4 simple steps:

  1. Complete an HVAC training program.
  2. Take your HVAC certification or licensing or exams.
  3. Apply for an HVAC apprenticeship.
  4. Apply for entry level HVAC technician jobs.

1. Complete an HVAC training program.

Enroll in an HVAC training program at local  hvac schools 411. You can usually complete these programs in less than 2 years. Some colleges may even award you with an associate degree in the process.

2. Take your HVAC certification or licensing exams.

Licensing in Colorado

Some states will require heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers to be licensed, others will not. Colorado happens to be one of the states that allow licensing for HVAC technicians to be handled at the county level. Each county may or may not require licensing through their respective building departments. However, it is a good idea to look into it if it’s available, for the purpose of doing work that requires permits.

For details on how to get your Heating Mechanic IV license in El Paso County, for example, visit the Contractor Licensing & Registration page at the Pikes Peak Regional Building Department (Pikes Peak RBD) website.

HVAC Certification

If you choose to work in refrigeration you will need to be certified in EPA 608, as required by federal law. For this you must pass a written exam specific to the types of equipment and refrigerants you will be handling. Most quality HVAC training programs include federal EPA 608 training and certification preparation.

Being certified in the HVAC field can allow for higher paying jobs. In the HVAC Excellence program there are several certification exams to choose from for students just starting out. Professional level certifications are also available and require employment verifications and core testing to advance your career. Check them out!

15 Employment Ready HVAC Certifications

  1. Electrical – Suggested prerequisite for all other certifications in the HVAC Excellence program
  2. Light Commercial Air Conditioning
  3. Air Conditioning
  4. Basic Refrigeration and Charging Procedures
  5. Electric Heat
  6. Gas Heat Certification
  7. Oil Heat
  8. Residential and Light Commercial Hydronic Heat
  9. Heat Pump
  10. Carbon Monoxide
  11. System Diagnostics and Troubleshooting Procedures
  12. Fuel Oil Combustion
  13. Natural Gas Combustion Analysis
  14. Carbon Monoxide and Combustion Analysis
  15. Light Commercial Refrigeration

Take advantage of what’s out there, like specialized HVAC training schools, hands-on training, and a multitude of certifications. Now that you know what you have to do and where to get it done, you can be on your way to a new career as an HVAC Technician.

3. Apply for an HVAC apprenticeship.

After completing your HVAC training, you may choose an apprenticeship as your next step. Simply apply to or enroll in an apprenticeship program with an experienced HVAC organization in your area. Learn everything they have to offer and put it to practice. Your apprenticeship may last anywhere from 6 to 36 months.

4. Apply for entry level HVAC Technician jobs.

You can also enter the HVAC field directly after completing a training program and receiving your degree and/or certifications. Many HVAC contractors and employers often hire entry level HVAC technicians to “train in” to their organizations.

Many HVAC programs offer career placement assistance for graduates. Contact your local HVAC training school today and you can be on your way to a rewarding career in HVAC with a good transcript and a healthy resume.


  • Pikes Peak Regional Building Department, Contractors Licensing and Registration, pprbd.org/contfiles/ContLicensing.aspx
  • HVAC Excellence, Technician Certification, hvacexcellence.org/EmploymentReady.aspx
  • United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook 2010-11 Edition, bls.gov/oco/ocos192.htm
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The Future of Artificial Intelligence at a CrossRoads



Well, here we are and artificial intelligence is getting more robust behind the scenes, and it is starting to replace more and more people. I never thought this day would come during my lifetime, but I see it is approaching very quickly. Although I do not consider myself a writer for hire, I am noting that there is now artificial intelligence software that is writing online articles, and each day they are getting incrementally better.

Currently, you can tell if a computer wrote an article or if the human did. However, there are also hybrid models; that is to say, a human writes three or four articles on a given topic, and artificially intelligent software makes derivative works and can turn those five articles into 50 articles. Those articles are a little bit harder to tell if a human actually wrote them, or if it was a computer.

Additionally, these derivative articles do often need a little editing, nevertheless, the day is almost upon us where computers will write entire novels, screenplays, and nearly all the news stories you read online.

In fact, many media outlets are now using computers where an individual types in the; who, what, where, when, and how of a particular news event, and the computer spits out the story. Then it only takes a little bit of editing, 5 to 6 minutes worth of work and it is ready for the online Publication. Not only does this increase the speed of news in our society and civilization, but it also takes away the job of a former newspaper staff writer.

Artificial intelligence is at a crossroads, and there is now AI decision making software that is able to take the place of a CEO, and it can do so at a 10th of the cost that many of the CEOs of the top 1000 corporations in the US are being paid, it does not require bonuses or stock options either. AI computer systems are about to change everything, and we really are at a crossroads. Please consider all this.

Lance Winslow is a retired Founder of a Nationwide Franchise Chain, and now runs the Online Think Tank. Lance Winslow believes that if you are not looking at the future, it may run over you.

Note: All of Lance Winslow’s articles are written by him, not by Automated Software, any Computer Program, or Artificially Intelligent Software. None of his articles are outsourced, PLR Content or written by ghost writers. Lance Winslow believes those who use these strategies lack integrity and mislead the reader. Indeed, those who use such cheating tools, crutches, and tricks of the trade may even be breaking the law by misleading the consumer and misrepresenting themselves in online marketing, which he finds completely unacceptable.

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Combining SEO With Social Media Marketing

SEO With Social Media Marketing

SEO With Social Media Marketing

Often, what seems so new and cutting-edge, stems from principles learned long, long ago. Such is the case with the latest trend toward combining social media marketing with search engine optimization.

Social media marketing is much more than a trend. If you are not utilizing social media platforms, and if your competition consistently and constantly creates valuable content on Facebook, Twitter and the new Google Buzz, they will out-rank you in the search engines. But a good marketing agency like facebook marketing singapore  can increase the benefit manifold.

To be successful online, it is critical to combine SEO practices with social media marketing. Not doing so would be like eating peanut butter without jam! To explain myself a little better, I would like to tell you the story of our ancestors, the hunters and the gatherers.

Thousands of years ago we were all hunters and gatherers. The hunters were sly and fearless. They divided and conquered. The gatherers’ stayed together as a close-knit group and, well, gathered. The hunters all lived together, and the gatherers all lived together. But the hunters did not live with the gatherers. Each thought the other was odd and inferior.

That is until, as many legends attest, a beautiful, young gatherer seduced a handsome, young hunter – enticing him back to her group. Soon he realized that the gatherer way of life wasn’t half bad and within a month had gained 30 pounds and couldn’t run from his T-P to the kitchen hall. Finally he got hungry for meat. He got back into shape and taught his brother-in-laws to hunt. They loved the adventure and celebrated their successful hunt with a feast of steak and potatoes.

OK, so what does this short history lesson on hunters and gatherers have to do with the idea of combining social media marketing with search engine optimization? You see, hunting was a good idea all by itself. Lots of meat, with no need of a fitness program because of all the running. Gathering was a good idea all by itself. They were stress-free people who were very organized when it came to their crops and fruit trees.

So separate, they had their advantages, but putting hunters and gatherers together was a great idea! Now they had a well-rounded diet including meat. Putting SEO and SMO activities together is another great idea!
Garrett Pierson, author of “What Success Takes” has combined SEO with social media in a revolutionary new program. It contains 20 modules that take us step-by-step through the necessary processes to become visible on-line while building loyal relationships. SEO has come a long way from simple link-building!

For example, a keyword-specific note on your Facebook fan page, which automatically links to twitter can be sent to all your company’s fans, then to their friends, and then to their friends almost indefinitely! Talk about link-building! Now, as well as reading an article about your product, our potential customers can get information from people that are linked to them through several social media sites. These are people they trust – so the odds of getting the sale increase significantly!

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Personal Loans with Poor Credit

Personal Loans with Poor Credit

Personal Loans with Poor Credit

Personal Loans with Poor Credit

Your poor credit history is not a good enough reason, in these days, for lenders to refuse you a new loan. With the competition in the loan business growing each day, lenders have little options other than to make a new deal with you. Yes, these are available despite past payment faults of the borrowers. You can find plenty of lenders that have, in fact, made a queue for winning you as a customer, provided you are ready to meet some conditions.

You can make a good use of these for any personal purpose. Borrowers, however, utilize the loan for renovating their homes, purchasing a car, throwing a wedding party, going to a distant holiday spot or for consolidating old debts.

Before apply for the loan, you should have a copy of your credit report. Ensure that the report has recorded all your past payments without any errors. If there is any errors then report it to the credit rating agency, so that your credit rating improves. If still, your credit score is too low, better wait for some months and pay off some easy debts. Remember that they are highly costly for poor credit people. With improved credit rating, however, the cost may get lowered.

Secondly, you must make all the efforts to assure the lender that you can repay them in time and that you are less risky a borrower. This you can do by pledging a property as collateral. Secured personal loans for poor credit are easier for lenders to approve, with added advantages for the borrowers, such as comparatively lower rate of interest, greater loan and larger repayment duration of 5 to 25 years.

If you are a poor credit tenant, opt for unsecured loans, which come without collateral. Through a little harder to get, these are accessible once you have proved your adequate repayment ability. Homeowners, who do not wish to risk the property, are also eligible. Interest rate, on these loans, goes higher. Lenders give smaller loan for 5 to 15 years.

Online lenders are considered as reliable source of personal loans for poor credit. For a suitable deal, however, you should first take rate quotes of these lenders. Compare the rates and you will most likely locate a suitable deal as per your requirements and circumstances.

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The Simpsons are banned in Venezuela

The Simpsons are banned in Venezuela

The Simpsons are banned in Venezuela

The Simpsons are banned in Venezuela

Venezuelan children can no longer see The Simpsons. The Chávez government has forced the mythical series starring Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie from Televen to be broadcast from the Televen programming. The reason is “a bad influence” for minors. The Telecommunications Commission of Venezuela (Conatel) understands that this type of content should not be broadcast during children’s hours from Monday to Friday at 11 am. The series already has a substitute, the muscular lifeguards in red swimsuits from Los vigilantes de la playa. (Or yes … what a good influence !!!)

Venezuelan children can no longer see The Simpsons. The Chávez government has forced the mythical series starring Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie from Televen to be broadcast from the Televen programming. The reason is “a bad influence” for minors. The Telecommunications Commission of Venezuela (Conatel) understands that this type of content should not be broadcast during children’s hours from Monday to Friday at 11 am. The series already has a substitute, the muscular lifeguards in red swimsuits from Los vigilantes de la playa. (Or yes … what a good influence !!!)

The country’s television control agency says the series is “a bad influence” for minors.

Venezuelan children can no longer see The Simpsons. The Chávez government has forced the mythical series starring Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie from Televen to be broadcast from the Televen programming. The reason is “a bad influence” for minors. The Telecommunications Commission of Venezuela (Conatel) understands that this type of content should not be broadcast during children’s hours from Monday to Friday at 11 am. The series already has a substitute, the muscular lifeguards in red swimsuits from Los vigilantes de la playa. (Or yes … what a good influence !!!)

The complaints of viewers are according to Conatel which have led to this agency initiating an administrative procedure against Televen that is likely to end with a sanction. As claimed by a spokesman for the television regulatory body have violated many points of the social responsibility law of radio and television? (Idiots!)

The owner of The Simpsons, 20th Century Fox Television, has said that she will not immediately rule on the withdrawal of her television series. But this is not the first complaint the series faces. Other countries have criticized in the past the scathing language of their protagonists and a dubious family model. The current US president has also disapproved of The Simpsons although today it is considered one of the largest cultural references in the United States.

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Investing in Commercial Real Estate

Investing in Commercial Real Estate

Investing in real estate is one of the best ways to amass a fortune even if you only invest a modest sum of money. Commercial real estate investing involves big money, and it is not advisable to venture into it, if you are an inexperienced investor.

The investors must have a carefully thought out plan making sure they know exactly what they want and how they will use their skills and expertise to achieve these. IT requires a lot of planning, perseverance and patience to succeed. The investors must be clear what kind of property they want to invest in, the size of the property, and its location. They must understand the local market and the latest trends, in order to get a hold of the right kind of property at the right price. Once they select it, they must be able to value it accurately. They must know if investing in it will yield good returns and make financial arrangements or get other methods of financing such as using notes to buy the property.

Though some investors fear investing in this sector because they feel that, although the return on the investments are high, so are the risks. Many problems can arise to cause problems such as dealing with tenants. The most high-risk investments in this sector are the multi-tenant properties, these being either offices or retail shops.

Commercial real estate investing needs focus and careful consideration. You must carefully scrutinize all documents relating to the property and its operation. You must scrutinize leases, their extensions and modifications, mortgages, notes, the title policy, certificate of occupancy, contracts regarding maintenance of the equipment used, such as, escalators or elevators, its insurance policy, the extent of coverage, parking lot contracts, and the property’s tax situation. Hire independent surveyors to gauge the condition of the building and its equipment. Hire a good attorney to guide you as you verify the lease structure, the title deeds, insurance policy, rent roll, tax returns, business licenses, utility bills and litigation history. Be certain you carefully scrutinize these things and know every tiny detail. Learn about the tenants, and if there are any associated problems, making changes in the purchase amount is necessary. Take adequate precautions, study all the information available about the property, and utilize the information to your advantage.

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